Particulate Matter (PM):

The mixture of solid and liquid particles those are measured in the micrometer (μm) scale. Transportation emissions, combustion, and industrial processes are
the sources of PM.

Ground-level ozone(O3):

Formed when nitrogen oxide and volatile organics compounds react with each other under the presence of sunlight.

Nitrogen oxides (NOX):

Contain nitrogen compounds, including nitric oxide (NO) which are released during combustion occurring with car engines and thermal power plants.

Heavy metals:

Are released from combustion in power plants and industrial processes such as waste combustion and coal purification.

Volatile organic compounds(VOCs ):

Compounds that are released from solvents, paints, and glazes. They are emitted into the atmosphere via car exhaust emissions and gas station activities, certain industrial processes, and agricultural activities.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs):

Organic compounds are released from various sources such as industrial activities, vehicle exhausts, gas stations, wood smoke, and many other sources, including cigarettes.

Ammonia (NH3):

Released from animal waste, fertilizers, and agricultural facilities as well.

Carbon monoxide (CO):

Carbon monoxide is generated from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2):

Emitted during the burning of fossil fuels and specific industrial sources.

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